Freaknik: The Rise and Fall of Atlanta’s Most Infamous Street Party

March 18, 2015 - fall Denim

An verbal story with Kasim Reed, Sam Massell, Jermaine Dupri, Dallas Austin, Eldrin Bell, Luther “Uncle Luke” Campbell, Sharon Toomer, Ryan Cameron, and many more

March 18, 2015


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Chapter I. The Innocent Origins

It all started in a open of 1983 with a tour orderly by students attending a Atlanta University Center. As during other historically black colleges and universities, AUC was home to “state clubs” finished adult of students with common home states. The clubs hold amicable events during a propagandize year and served as pre-Facebook clearinghouses for common rides home. That spring, members of a DC Metro bar threw a tour in Piedmont Park for students who found themselves stranded on campus over open break. It was a elementary event—sandwiches, coolers, bang boxes, that arrange of thing, recalls Sharon Toomer, afterwards a Spelman College beginner and one of a organizers. “A lot of us came by bus; no one had cars behind then,” she says of a entertainment in a margin during a dilemma of 10th Street and Monroe Drive. In those days, Piedmont Park was shabby, a tour area small some-more than a empty lot.

Marcellus Barksdale came to Morehouse as a story highbrow in 1977 and still teaches story and African American studies. At that time, a “state clubs” were genuine popular. The DC Metro Club was finished adult of students from Spelman and Morehouse who were from Washington, Virginia, and Maryland.

Sharon Toomer now lives in Brooklyn and is a publisher of That year, we had a topic called “the Freak.” We had a “Freak Dance,” that was tighten to a holidays. It was unequivocally around the dance during a time, that was “Le Freak,” a Chic song. Rick James and all that usually became a theme.

Marcellus Barksdale: There was that song, “Superfreak.” And [the eventuality name] was like, “This is where we were going to be means to get freaky.”

Sharon Toomer: It was a tyro called Rico Brown who suggested, “Let’s call it Freaknic,” putting together tour and freak.

Over a years, a spelling morphed into Freaknik and a event’s timing shifted from open break—usually in early March—to a “reading week”  duration before final exams (generally a third weekend in April). As speak of Freaknik spread, it drew students from distant over a AUC—and a satisfactory share of non-students. For several years, a celebration hopscotched from park to park on a Westside.

Marcellus Barksdale: They had a vast tour during John White Park on Cascade Road. Nobody was counting heads, nonetheless it was a vast turnout; I’d contend a good 5,000. People brought their bang boxes. They brought their grills, their blankets, and, of course, their coolers. It was a pleasing occasion.

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Kasim Reed is mayor of Atlanta. He grew adult here and attended Howard University, where, as a college beginner in 1988, he came home to attend Freaknik (though he’d also attended while in high school). When Freaknik started, my brothers were in college. Everyone who’s honest of a epoch had some knowledge with it. When we went it was still cool—and essentially students.

Edward Simpson graduated from Creekside High School in 1995. He works a technical author and lives in Atlanta. Let’s be unequivocally clear: No, my mom did not know where we was going or what we was adult to! She would’ve had a heart attack. we would tell her we was going out to a celebration or unresolved out with friends. My comparison hermit was with me, so it was never a vast bargain as prolonged as we was with him. The West End was somewhere tighten by that we could get to and still make it home in time for a curfew.

Kwanza Hall has served on Atlanta City Council given 2006. He initial attended Freaknik while attending Benjamin E. Mays High School, where he graduated in 1989. Later, as a tyro during a Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Hall returned to Atlanta to attend Freaknik. I usually hold breeze of it given we was in Mr. Butler’s art class. we was a freshman, nonetheless a art class, it was all seniors. If we were around them, we knew what they were doing. When we listened they were going places, we would go, too. You had teachers whose children were there. It was a gibberish of a vast brothers and vast sisters of my classmates. Someone who might’ve usually graduated tells a seniors, “Look during what we’re doing! We go to this thing called Freaknik!”

Derrick Boazman attended Morris Brown College from 1986 to 1990 and was concerned in tyro government. He served on Atlanta City Council from 1997 to 2004 and now hosts a radio uncover on WOAK. It was during Washington Park for a integrate of years, and afterwards it got too big. By a time we was tyro supervision boss in 1988, it was commencement to strech levels where tens of thousands of people were coming. It mushroomed into something bigger than something anyone could remember or manage. Freaknik came full round and behind to Piedmont Park.

Chapter II. From Picnic to Phenomenon

Freaknik developed from tour to celebration to prolonged weekend of concerts and cruising by Atlanta’s dogwood-shaded streets. Buzz rippled by a campuses of historically black colleges and universities, luring students who road-tripped to Atlanta for all a reasons college students rally anywhere: music, dancing, drinking, love, lust, and a possibility to usually hang out. In Atlanta—with a black domestic and business leaders and abounding history—they found a welcoming environment. “Growing adult in a place like a San Francisco Bay Area, where mainstream white middle-class enlightenment pervades, a usually bargain we had of college open mangle came by a white filter,” recalls Ayanna Brown, who attended Tuskegee University in a early 1990s. An Apr eventuality to Atlanta valid “you could be black and educational and have fun—but it happened not during a beach nonetheless pound dab in a core of a city,” says Brown, now a highbrow of preparation during Elmhurst College in Chicago. As Freaknik grew, weekend events spilled out from Piedmont Park and into clubs and unison venues around town, attracting performers and promoters. But for many attendees, a captivate was not so many going to events as removing there.

Jermaine Dupri grew adult in Atlanta and still lives here. He launched his record label, So So Def, in 1993. we was 16 a year we became wakeful of Freaknik. we entertainment into a trade not meaningful what it was. we was pushing to a specific nightclub; we consider it was Club XS in Decatur. It was like 8 or 9 in a evening. This was like one of a initial years when it got bigger. They were in a parking lot. we was usually like, “Why is it so many people over here?”

Chris Williams attended Frederick Douglass High School in Atlanta and from 1995 to 1999 was a tyro during Tuskegee University, a two-hour expostulate from Atlanta. He (officially) attended his initial Freaknik as a college freshman. Driving downtown on I-75, there were droves of girls pushing down a expressway perplexing to vigilance we to lift over. It was usually wild.

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Ayanna Brown: My beginner year, it was like this weekend where everybody was usually gone. By a time my sophomore year rolls around, a hum around campus was, “You improved get prepared for Freaknik!” There was never a flyer posted, nonetheless we all knew when it was. For us pushing from Tuskegee, a many engaging thing about it was a large exodus of a college campus. We would typically leave early Friday morning. One of a things that unequivocally resonated as we would be pushing to Atlanta by Columbus was that traffic.

Jermaine Dupri: we had a motorcycle usually for Freaknik, usually so we could float around in a streets. You wanted to be in it. we had to have a automobile during Freaknik. we wanted to be seen, nonetheless we wanted to see everybody during a same time. It was a commencement of “flexing,” in any kind of way. The birth of roving around with your complement blasting, with TVs in your car. All of that things came from people wanting to be seen during Freaknik.

Ayanna Brown: The prominence of Freaknik was removing stranded in traffic. It was in trade that strain got louder; people started articulate to one another, asking, “Where are we from?”

Chris Williams: Girls were flashing. You got folks perplexing to get it on in a car. we remember me and 3 of my homeboys with me pushing down I-85 entrance a ball stadium, and some girls from North Carolina were honking their horn perplexing to get us to lift over. We pulled over during a gas station, exchanged numbers, and finished adult hooking adult that night! It was a furious time.

Luther “Uncle Luke” Campbell was a initial member of  Miami-based 2 Live Crew and begetter of a hip-hop genre famous as “bass music” that became a de facto soundtrack of Freaknik. I listened about Freaknik when it initial kind of started up, when people used to tell me that a students were going. They had this thing out in a parks. As a years went on, it became a vast drum thing. Then we started removing requisitioned to do concerts in a park and afterwards shows during a clubs.

Jermaine Dupri: This was pre-Twitter and all of that. If you’re from a opposite city, you’re perplexing to figure out how to get your strain listened in a city like Atlanta. My devise was to make certain we saw and listened a music. So So Def as a soundtrack of Freaknik—that was my goal.

Chapter III. Freaknik Peaks

From hundreds to thousands to tens of thousands, Freaknik grew, nonetheless during a initial decade, roughly all white Atlantans—and many black Atlantans over a age of 40—were oblivious. Then came Freaknik 1993. That April, 100,000 students converged on a city—triple a array likely by military arch Eldrin Bell. Gridlock stretched from Cascade to Collier Road. While trapped commuters seethed during a standstill, students got out of their vehicles and danced in a street. All weekend long, a celebration rolled from Piedmont Park to Peachtree Street to Lakewood to a West End, restraint residents in their homes and bringing business to a halt.

Eldrin Bell: We were impressed by a numbers. The streets were full. The venues were full. The hotels were full. Everything was full. Where in America had we seen, before to this, that array of African American girl in one place? Nowhere.

Ryan Cameron was a DJ during V-103 and now hosts a morning uncover on a station. I would get into a metro helicopter and tell people where it was many swarming and where they should avoid. But instead of avoiding those areas, some-more people would come!

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Deputy Chief Joe Spillane is a 27-year maestro of a Atlanta Police Department. In a 1990s, he patrolled and after supervised Zone 5 in downtown Atlanta. The initial year we worked, 1993, we was during Peachtree and Ralph McGill with 3 other people. Our pursuit was to try to keep a intersections from gridlocking given we had so many trade in a hotel district going adult towards Buckhead. People would usually stay on Peachtree and go by a light and retard a whole intersection.

Doug Monroe covered Freaknik for a Atlanta Journal-Constitution during a 1990s. He wrote a “Monroe Drive” trade column. The “first year,” 1993, took everybody by surprise. we interviewed people from all over—even some-more than a South. we consider people came down from New York. It was usually everywhere! we wasn’t wakeful that it existed on a smaller scale before.

Kim Hill lived in Midtown during a 1993 and 1994 Freakniks. The initial year, we had family visiting from out of town. We had left out shopping. It took me from dual until 7 to get from Lenox Square to Piedmont Park. It wasn’t until we got home and incited on a dusk news that we found out what was going on. Once we got behind to a apartment, we couldn’t leave for dual days.

Joe Spillane: My mother is a lieutenant. She worked Freaknik during a dilemma of Spring and 14th as an officer. She was articulate to someone and leaned into their car, and they drug her opposite a intersection. She finished adult median underneath a automobile on a other side. She was not injured. But there was so many going on … Of course, they put in a call to help, nonetheless a male got divided given there was so many traffic. He was means to get on a widespread and get out of there before he was caught.

Charlie Harper lived in West Midtown from 1993 to 1997. He now lives in Marietta and is a owners of  a domestic website Peach Pundit. I’d never listened of Freaknik; we grew adult in suburban Atlanta. we was on a blind date going to a wedding. We usually got hold in trade and had no suspicion why. After a initial year, it was like other vast events: If you’re not going to be in a core of it, usually get out of a way. we remember thinking, “Why would anyone ever come to Atlanta for open mangle when we could be during a beach in 4 hours?”

Patti Puckett Ghezzi was an Atlanta-Journal Constitution reporter and lived in Midtown in a early 1990s. we asked a immature lady perched on a glossy automobile what was going on and she pronounced “Freaknik!” When we looked confused, she pleasantly translated, “black college open break.” we holed adult in my section and review all weekend.

Eldrin Bell: Mainly, they usually wanted to march adult and down a street, and we authorised a apportionment of that. Now, a array of business leaders disagreed. I’m not contemptible that we did concede it. My summary was, “Atlanta is a city we can come to. All we wish we to do is behave.”

Patti Puckett Ghezzi: For a subsequent week during a AJC, we fielded phone calls from indignant Midtown residents. we suspicion they were fractious and lame.

Doug Monroe: It was a remarkable eventuality that came out of a blue, and it’s roughly like that ice charge a year ago. It just: Boom! Shut down a traffic. Traffic is usually such a vast partial of Atlanta. When a trade shuts down, all shuts down.

As complaints about unruly function raged, then–city legislature member and mayoral claimant Bill Campbell shielded a college kids, observant students he celebrated were “as trusting as those in Beach Blanket Bingo.” Campbell pronounced with improved policing and planning, he would “certainly acquire them back.” But in Apr 1994, usually months after his coronation and with a Olympics frequency dual years away, Campbell faced vigour on all fronts. If Atlanta couldn’t hoop 100,000 college students over a prolonged weekend, how would it horde a million ubiquitous guest over dual weeks? And a city that promoted a polite rights bequest found itself in an inner brawl that separate along secular lines—black college students contra white home and business owners—as good as opposite a generational divide.

Angelo Fuster hold positions in a administrations of 3 mayors: Maynard Jackson, Andrew Young, and Bill Campbell. He quiescent in early 1996 as a arch of selling and communications in a initial Campbell administration and now owns Angelo Fuster Associates, a domestic and open affairs consulting firm. The regard in domestic circles was that some in a black village would understand any measures that limited Freaknik or disheartened it as City Hall doing what a white folks wanted. That was never discussed, nonetheless it was partial of a concern.

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Sam Massell is boss of a Buckhead Coalition, that he founded in 1988. He was Atlanta mayor from 1970 to 1974. We had come a prolonged approach in competition family on a one-on-one basis: sitting together during ball games, operative together in businesses. But nobody had seen a throng like that, a host scene. People panic with mobs. It was a newness of it, a fact that it was different.

Eldrin Bell: Who owns businesses downtown? Mostly white people. But any complaints were about behavior. we didn’t take that to mean, “We don’t like them here usually given they’re black.” we saw it as excusable contra unsuitable behavior, rather than black contra white.

Ed Gibson lived in Ansley Park in a mid-1990s. My suspicion was that these kids were accurately like me and my peers behind in a day, during Myrtle Beach and in Florida—with opposite strain and reduction sunburn. Frankly, we wasn’t annoyed or bothered; it was another materialisation that creates vital in a city so rich.

Sonia Murray works during V-103 and lonesome Freaknik for a Atlanta Journal-Constitution where she worked as strain censor in a 1990s. Beaches aren’t always a black chairman thing. But unresolved out in your car, for a lot of black people, is. It was frequency people that were in college that we ever interviewed. These were people who were operative and saving their money, wanting to hang out. It was some-more like people right out of college. Where would we go to celebration if we lived in Augusta? Memphis? Tallahassee? Where would we see that many people in one place? What is a homogeneous now? Atlanta felt like a black mecca during Freaknik. All kinds of people, all kinds of parties.

Kim Hill: Some people might feel that it was a black thing, nonetheless we wouldn’t wish 200,000 white kids operative that approach and wreaking that kind of havoc. It was too many in too precipitated of a place.

Doug Monroe: we had a write call line [at a newspaper] and whenever we wrote anything about it during all, we would get genuine indignant calls with people possibly pursuit me an apologist for Freaknik or a racist. It was also a unequivocally relocating secular issue, we think, given we had a African American students carrying fun and everybody else wanting to go about their business. It unequivocally pennyless down along secular lines and was utterly bitter.

The video for Luther Campbell’s 1993 strike “Work It Out” featured Freaknik 1993 (check out a 0:51 mark) and unison footage shot in Atlanta.

As Freaknik 1994 approached, county leaders motionless to bargain with a weekend by changing it. Downtown businesses attempted to lift supports for a Atlanta Black College Spring Break Celebration, or as a journal called it, “The Party Formerly Known as Freaknik.” This did not entirely take off, nor did Freakfest ’94, another structured event. In allege of a students’ arrival, Campbell certain business owners and intown residents that a city would moment down. City Council authorized $175,000 for confidence and cleanup.

But Freaknik’s place in HBCU enlightenment had grown even larger, interjection to media hype of a 1993 gridlock and swat videos such as Luther Campbell’s 1993 “Work It Out,” that enclosed footage from Freaknik 1993 and a unison during Lakewood Fairgrounds (now EUE/Screen Gems Studio). With all that buzz, and acts like Snoop Dogg and Queen Latifah scheduled to perform, Freaknik 1994 drew a record 200,000 attendees—70,000 of whom incited out for a Saturday unison in Piedmont Park.

Jefferi Lee spent a decade as network operations manager for Black Entertainment Television (BET), that foster live from Freaknik. He now runs WHUT-TV in Washington, D.C. For hip-hop and black music, it became a mecca. Freaknik was bigger than a MTV Video Music Awards. When a corporate sponsorship showed up, it was huge.

Kasim Reed: we consider that Freaknik was a good thing—until it wasn’t, until it mislaid a essence. It stopped being about black students carrying a good time and took on an All-Star Game form of feel. It unequivocally became a black Daytona Beach.

Sonia Murray: By a time Freaknik reached a height, for a record tag it was an opportunity. You were removing your aim assembly collected all in one place. A lot of labels had events and parties, and labels saw it as an eventuality to foster their new artist. You’d see a posters everywhere, all adult and down a write poles. we remember Diddy entrance down. we remember saying Snoop. That wasn’t a epoch of VIP. You could see people during events and be around them. we remember Jermaine Dupri. It was his city; he was everywhere.

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Jermaine Dupri: Me and Kris Kross went to a mall during Freaknik, and a mall damn nearby got tighten down. That was like an advertising, selling thing. That also combined a mindset for people that they’re going to run into people during a mall; they’re going to see famous people.

Dallas Austin was a producer/songwriter operative with artists including TLC, Brandy, Monica and others during a Freaknik era. A College Park native, he still lives in Atlanta. I remember one year saying Outkast … a lot of opposite people. At times we usually went, and we all saw any other during Piedmont Park. It was roughly like a festival with a concerts—different people were doing opposite things. But it was never lifeless adult like a Lollapalooza.

Luther Campbell: If we were an artist compelling any product, it was a good place to party, to foster new music. You could go and accommodate a lot of pleasing women. It was an eventuality we usually had to be at.

Ryan Cameron: It was a heyday of LaFace Records. The Dirty South was unequivocally starting to come into a own. Freaknik was ratchet before ratchet was a word.

Salah Ananse is an Atlanta DJ and attended Morehouse College from 1991 to 1995. Once it grew, everybody saw it as a money-making opportunity.

Dallas Austin: Freaknik was a good time to book a uncover given we knew it was going to be packed. Everybody knows a good weekend. Club owners, promoters knew during Freaknik we were gonna make money. So opposite venues would do things on their possess to make money. It wasn’t [a concurrent festival] like Music Midtown.

Sonia Murray: On Saturday during Lenox, we could see any artist there. we remember going down a escalator and a guys from Boyz II Men were harmonizing on a escalator going into a food court! It was enormous for a malls. This was when a lot of record labels were articulate about designers for a initial time. Hip-hop’s transition into that label-dropping kind of music. People were going out and shopping those things, wearing them in a videos. It was all relocating in tandem with a strain and a stage during that time.

Jermaine Dupri: I was pushing during this whole era. we didn’t wish a driver. we wanted to get in my Range Rover and drive. Madeline Woods from BET came to Atlanta and we was like, “Yo, I’m going to take we out and uncover we what’s going on during Freaknik.” We were stranded in traffic. we was pushing and people knew her given she was on TV and it was like a craziest shit in a world! we took Larenz Tate to Club 112 that night … this was when Menace II Society had come out. Club 112 was so swarming that we couldn’t even go by a front of a club; we had to go by a kitchen. That’s when we knew Freaknik had taken over a city.

Luther Campbell: Being a owners of my record label, we could guard record sales. we knew where a strain was playing, where it was being sold, what’s removing people excited. We would demeanour for events like Freaknik to be a partial of. Once we satisfied that, “Hey man, this is what people want,” it was like, “Okay, let’s possess it.” People in Atlanta desired us, and we desired Atlanta.

The video for Playa Poncho’s “Whatz Up, Whatz Up,” was shot nearby a Civic Center during Freaknik 1995 and was a initial installment of a So So Def Bass All-Stars project. “We shot that video around a same time as Freaknik given there were so many people in town. That strain embodies a demeanour of Freaknik,” says So So Def owners Jermaine Dupri.

Chapter IV. The Tide Turns

While a strain business profited, others saw Freaknik as a liability. In Apr 1995, restaurants announced skeleton to close, and some hotels refused to take reservations. For a initial time given 1936, Atlanta’s Dogwood Festival was rescheduled. Some 600 residents and businesses shaped a Freaknik Fallout Group and threatened to sue a city. The Wall Street Journal reported that Campbell approached his reflection in New Orleans to plead a Freaknik relocation. Meanwhile, a organisation of AUC students and alumni put together nonetheless another alternative—FreedomFest.

Angelo Fuster: There was vigour from a Chamber of Commerce, from a Convention and Visitors Bureau, from a World Congress Center. There were a integrate of conventions holding place. They pronounced their guest would never come back. There was a good bargain of vigour that if it can’t be managed better, it needs to stop.

Sharon Toomer: It became a logistical nightmare.

The city budgeted $1 million for confidence and cleanup, triple what it had spent in 1994. APD and state troopers implemented an assertive trade control plan, restraint highway exits and environment adult barricades in renouned cruising areas. Campbell and his military chief, Beverly Harvard, enlisted a AUC college presidents to send letters to their peers during 140 schools, seeking them to daunt students from attending. This thwarted some, nonetheless frequency all. On a third weekend in April, 100,000 partyers arrived.

Sharon Toomer: The city finished things worse. Their devise was to make it so intolerable that people didn’t wish to come back, and that devise failed.

Ayanna Brown: By 1995, we had a airfield sealed up. People were entrance from everywhere. So a tinge of Freaknik started to change. we can remember saying prime organisation in their cars and thinking, “Why are we out here?”

Salah Ananse: Things that went on in support clubs were spilling out into a streets. Even Mardi Gras is some-more controlled.

Kwanza Hall: we came home a integrate of times from college to go to Freaknik. we met adult with some friends and entertainment from D.C. once. It altered some-more and some-more as we came back. It got worse and worse and worse in terms of a function and what [the city] could manage. It got offer and offer divided from college.

Freaknik 1994
Freaknik 1994

Photograph by shelia turner/Atlanta

Patti Puckett Ghezzi: we was on a Connector; it was super congested. In front of me were these girls roving in a unequivocally shiny, imagination car. They were all dressed in a Freaknik outfits of a day—the parsimonious denim shorts. They were lounging like they were sunbathing. Their hair was all finished perfect, genuine flattering girls. They were usually a design of Freaknik—the approach a AJC wanted us to support it.

An ambulance came adult behind me, and we immediately started perplexing to pierce my automobile over. we changed to a right; a automobile in front of me didn’t pierce during all. Finally, this paramedic got on her loudspeaker and said, “There is a male carrying a heart attack, and he’s gonna die.” The girls looked during her, shrugged, looked back, and whispered to a male pushing and usually refused to move. Right then, we incited on Freaknik. we suspicion it was something we were tolerating—that a city, or somebody, indispensable to get underneath control. But after that we saw it differently. we remember dreading it.

Edward Simpson: we remember being during that BP hire subsequent to a West End mall, unresolved out in a car, and conference gunshots ring out and a cars speed by and everybody using for cover. Something like that will stay with we forever.

Angelo Fuster: One night, we went adult to a mayor’s office, and we were on a bureau patio looking during Mitchell Street, and there was a throng going in a instruction of a State Capitol, and there were shots fired. Everybody forsaken to a ground, a mayor’s confidence detail, everybody. Later that night, there were reports of a organisation going to Underground and violation into a Nike store.

Freaknik 1995 wrapped adult with grave reports. The rape section during Grady Memorial Hospital treated 10 victims—far some-more than in a standard weekend. Police finished during slightest 93 arrests and revelers looted stores in Underground Atlanta and Greenbriar Mall. Three people were shot. Interviewed by Jet magazine, military arch Beverly Harvard pronounced a licentious function finished her “mad as hell.” Mayor Campbell had had enough, declaring, “Quite frankly, we am positively sleepy of this issue.” City Hall’s solution: strangulation by bureaucracy. In Apr 1996, Freaknik became a dry run for Olympics trade control. APD put 1,500 officers on 12-hour shifts, and a city tested a high-tech trade system. The Georgia Emergency Management Agency non-stop adult a authority center, and Georgia National Guard infantry drilled during metro-area armories.

Kasim Reed: It would’ve been tough and formidable to bargain with, as it was for Mayor Campbell. Freaknik had to be ended. It literally metastasized.

Sharon Toomer: It had to go. There’s no approach that anyone with any clarity can validate a objectification of women, a rapist element. That had zero to do with a solid, good vigilant of Freaknik. Anyone over a age of 22 had no business during Freaknik.

Markel Hutchins was a tyro during Morehouse College from 1995 to 2000. He is now a apportion and romantic vital in Atlanta. By a time we got to Morehouse, generally after my second year, it had unequivocally incited into a thespian arrangement of desire that undermined a unequivocally hint of what a AUC schools meant for this village and unequivocally for a nation.

Doug Monroe: The city finally came adult with a approach to perplex a students to a indicate where they did not wish to come back. You can’t usually tighten down a city given of a need to get places. Once they started handling it a approach they did, it took divided a lot of a fun of when it was a vast crowd. A lot of people came for a interlude in traffic, partying, assembly people in a street. It was arrange of purposeless after that.

Joe Spillane: Whenever we take a organisation of people that wish to tour a streets in a certain pattern, when we interrupt a pattern; that creates it reduction fun. we consider it does naturally kill a vibe. At a time we was a squalid sergeant, so we can’t tell we what a vigilant was, nonetheless we consider when a mayor said, “Enough is enough,” we consider that became a intent. If we consider about it, a streets of Atlanta weren’t designed for cruising. They’re designed to go to a end and leave a destination, nonetheless not to expostulate adult and down. There’s not adequate aspect to concede that many cars to invariably do that though critical implications to a city.

Chris Williams: Cops were display adult [at Lenox] and people weren’t doing nothing; they were usually there. It was extraordinary how differently they looked during us, like we weren’t college educated, like we were thugs. We were rocking Polo, Tommy Hilfiger. We weren’t looking raggedy. We had income to spend!

Ryan Cameron: Bill Campbell was given a name “the Mayor Who Killed Freaknik.” People felt like they were no longer welcome.

Chapter V. Death Throes—And a Failed Resurrection

By 1997, Atlanta had posted scarcely 300 “No Cruising Zone” signs via a city— nonetheless mostly downtown, in Buckhead, and nearby parks. Another devise was to tighten aspect streets, or to make some streets one-way only. The city also attempted to work with students to classify programs like pursuit fairs, adding a glaze of respectability. Sharon Toomer and Suzanne Guy Mitchell, members of a organisation that creatively founded Freaknik in 1983, submitted a offer to City Council that summarized a new incarnation of Freaknik, with corporate sponsorships, a website with centralized information (including do’s and don’ts), and designated cruising and 24-hour celebration zones.

Sharon Toomer: Suzanne crafted a sponsorship and offering it to Coca-Cola. But a city did not go for it.

City Council and Mayor Campbell adopted one of Toomer and Mitchell’s ideas: A website with information for would-be attendees. They again attempted to re-brand a entertainment as Black College Spring Break. Others seized a suspicion of removing into still-nascent cyber promotion. A blurb site,, drew 13 million pageviews between Jan and April, 1997, and enclosed available messages from Atlanta celebrities trimming from Atlanta Falcons star Andre Rison and New Edition’s Michael Bivins to Dexter King, who admonished a youngsters to “have a good time … be stable and stay positive.”

Freaknik 1997 drew nearby and antsy Atlantans had another means for concern: Rumors of a explosve threat. Because a weekend coincided with a anniversary of a botched Apr 19, 1993 raid during David Koresh’s Waco devalue and a 1995 bombing of a sovereign building in Oklahoma City, sovereign agencies warned that minority groups could be targeted on supposed “Militia Day.” Federal agents assimilated a already on-alert internal military to ready for Freaknik, and Atlantans, still jarred by a bombing during a 1996 Summer Olympics, hunkered down during home.

The eventuality itself was deemed dull. Partyers stayed divided and military patrolled aggressively. Two incidents exacerbated competition and category tensions. On Freaknik weekend, a immature Atlanta father, Timmie Sinclair, was stopped by cops after going by a Freaknik trade barricade. Sinclair pronounced other military told him to go through, as he was streamer out to get medicine for his child. But officers kick and pepper-sprayed Sinclair, and a partial was  prisoner on video by a Freaknik attendee. On a flip side, a gathering of 10,000 employees of TruServ hardware stores was so disrupted during Freaknik, that a association threatened to cancel destiny meetings in Atlanta, definition a city would remove an estimated $18 million mercantile impact. While a NAACP and others polite rights groups protested assertive policing and a “Sinclair Incident,” a business village frothed during a awaiting of losing some-more vast conventions.

In his 1998 bestseller A Man In Full, publisher and amicable spectator Tom Wolfe non-stop with a stage set in Freaknik, that, like a rest of his novel, highlighted secular and mercantile tensions in Atlanta. “These black boys and girls came to Atlanta from colleges all over a place for Freaknik … and here they were on Piedmont Avenue, in a heart of a northern third of Atlanta, a white third, flooding a streets, a parks, a malls, holding over Midtown and Downtown and a blurb strips of Buckhead, restraining adult traffic,” wrote Wolfe, describing students “baying during a moon, that turns chocolate during Freaknik, freaking out White Atlanta, scaring them indoors, where they quiver for 3 days, giving them a snootful of a destiny …”

The year Wolfe’s novel was published, a biracial cabinet of business and county leaders complicated Freaknik. Their recommendation to a mayor: Shut a eventuality down. George Hawthorne, cabinet co-chair, told a AJC that Freaknik was dominated by “a rapist component of passionate abuse opposite women. It’s time to make a change.” Columnist Cynthia Tucker called out a mayor for not hostile Freaknik. “The cabinet headed by Hawthorne, an African American businessman, gave Campbell any domestic cover he needed,” she wrote. “The committee’s news underscored what was already clear: Freaknik does not suffer a utter support of African Americans—at slightest not those of us who have strike middle-age.” In 1999, mayor Campbell allocated a row to devise destiny Freakniks. One of a tyro members was Markel Hutchins.

Markel Hutchins: The ubiquitous horizon was, we think, mayor Campbell was perplexing to toe a line between creation certain that people had a right to arrange or people felt comfortable, nonetheless also creation certain that open reserve and skill was stable and that a streets were not in sum disharmony and pandemonium. There might have been 10 or 12 of us. We had a approach line of communication to a mayor and arch of police. We were to offer as a eyes and ears for a mayor’s office, a city government, and law enforcement. We were also tasked with a shortcoming of giving a open voice for what this redefinition and marker of black college weekend was all about.

By 1999, crowds dwindled to around 50,000—a shade of Freaknik’s former glory. And a military vigour stepped up, with 350 arrests and thousands of citations issued. By 2000, Freaknik had fizzled, and students went to Galveston and Daytona Beach.

Patti Puckett Ghezzi: It got genuine pathetic. The cold people had changed on. There was this woman—way too aged to be a student—who was dancing on her car, with nobody there to watch her. [A reporter] walked over to her and was like, “What are we doing?” She said, “It’s Freaknik, and I’m jolt my tail!” It was so tragic. To me, that was usually like a pointer that it was so over.

Markel Hutchins: I quiescent [from a committee] given we got to a indicate where I’d turn undone by a miss of progress. In terms of military officers and law coercion creation a some-more vigilant bid on not profiling, not badgering and not mistreating a immature people that came. But we also was unequivocally undone given a efforts to reimagine and redefine Freaknik into black college weekend had such extrinsic success that it was rather frustrating to be a partial of that process.

Derrick Boazman: At a indicate that Freaknik consummated it was reprehensible. If we was to rate it in a dictionary of black life, I’d contend it’s improved lost than venerable and remembered.

In 2010, Atlanta-based rapper T-Pain starred in Adult Swim’s “Freaknik: The Musical,” a animation about a swat group’s tour to Atlanta to attend a regenerated chronicle of a mythological party. Other stars who loaned their voices to a bid enclosed Snoop Dogg, Lil Wayne, Big Boi, Rick Ross, and Cee-Lo. The charcterised chronicle imagines “The Spirit of Freaknik” as a bullion chain-wearing spook from another galaxy. In a opening scene,  Lil Jon predicts that a celebration could arise again: “They killed Freaknik. Or during slightest that’s what they suspicion they did … They were means to hurt a party, nonetheless they couldn’t kill a essence of Freaknik. They contend it lives on, watchful to return.”

For now, however, Freaknik lives on essentially as a theme of educational study, and in that locus continues to hint discuss on issues of competition and class. In a 2004 paper, Georgia State University communications highbrow Marian Meyers analyzed media coverage of Freaknik and resolved that news outlets tended to expel women as “jezebels” honourable any assault that occurred while it “criminalized black organisation essentially with honour to skill repairs while decriminalizing them concerning their abuse of black women. The reserve of black women appears of reduction effect than that of property.”  In a 2012 thesis, Peter Stockus positioned a eventuality as a form of domestic protest, arguing that students claiming a streets of Atlanta could be “seen in a same tradition of concurred forms of secular sermon such as worker rituals of insurgency and a polite rights movement.” Freaknik is referenced in erudite articles and books on all from Atlanta’s travel complement to residential separation patterns.

Kasim Reed: All in all, I’d contend Freaknik was a net certain for a city of Atlanta. Freaknik was an critical partial of cementing Atlanta’s purpose as a core of black culture. When we consider about a purpose Atlanta has in a minds of black people in America, Freaknik played a purpose in formulating that brand.

Sam Massell: There were pluses and minuses, nonetheless a minuses outweighed a pluses. The fear cause can’t be dismissed. You don’t wish your citizenry to ever be frightened to go outside, to work, to propagandize given of some organisation that’s in city for a meeting. The pluses were introducing a city to new people. we gamble a array of those people who were concerned in Freaknik now live in Atlanta. They came here to find a life that they suspicion would be a peculiarity they would enjoy.

Jermaine Dupri: we introduced a lot of people to Atlanta by Freaknik. In “Welcome to Atlanta,” when we wrote, “Where people don’t visit/They pierce out here,” that’s from me hearing people come for Freaknik. They would come here and be like, “I adore this place!” They had never seen this many black people have a good life in a place like this. Back then, it was good for a black chairman to pierce to Atlanta.

Salah Ananse: It was a fun epoch in Atlanta life, nonetheless I’m not looking behind on it like, “I wish that back.”

Kasim Reed: It wouldn’t work today. Freaknik is usually going to be something that’s ours, that’s in a memories. We had a run.

Jermaine Dupri: If we take all that things and we demeanour during it now and we replay all a tapes, we say, “Look during all of we guys withdrawal a city, meditative what was entrance was negative.” It was not a negative. Freaknik was usually like hip-hop in any aspect: It was something that was combined by a youth. It became something that we could make income off of. It became something we could marketplace your business to. It became something that was looked during as a bad thing, nonetheless it wasn’t. we hatred that it’s gone.

Ryan Cameron: That’s what creates nostalgia, nostalgia. You can Google it all day, nonetheless I’m a witness. we know what it was like. You can try to reconstruct it all we wish to, nonetheless it’s usually not going to be a same.


About a Photographs
The array of black-and-white photographs from Freaknik 1994 are by shelia turner/Atlanta. A account documentary photographer, she uses photographs to yield a height for a hearing of US life and culture. More during

This underline is an extended chronicle of “The Last Days of Freaknik,” that ran in a Mar 2015 issue.

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